Addison’s disease: An endocrine or hormonal condition which can lead to weight loss, muscle weaknessfatigue and low blood pressure

Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s): These are medical reactions that occur when a person is given a drug which causes a serious medical problem. According to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, there are over 2 million serious adverse drug reactions costing over $136 BILLION yearly– greater than the total costs of cardiovascular or diabetic care. ADR’s cause one out of five injuries or deaths per year to hospitalized patients and over 100,000 deaths annually. Only heart disease,cancer and strokes kill more Americans each year than adverse drug reactions.

64 percent of all patient visits to physicians result in a prescription. 2.8 billion prescriptions were actually filled in 2000 in the United States, about ten prescriptions for each individual in the United States. According to the CDER, adverse drug reactions increase dramatically after a patient is on four or more medications.
Through DNA testing, many of these adverse drug reactions can be prevented.

Aggravated Nervousness: A progressively worsening irritated and troubled state of mind.

Agitation: An emotionally disturbed state of mind possibly leading to sudden violent and forceful acts.

Allergy: An extreme sensitivity of body tissues triggered by substances in the air, drugs, or foods causing a reaction like sneezing, itching, asthma, hay fever, skin rashes, nausea and/or vomiting.

Amnesia: A long term or short term, partial or full memory loss created by emotional or physical shock, severe illness, or a blow to the head where the person was caused pain and became unconscious.

Anaphylaxis: A violent, sudden, and severe drop in blood pressure caused by a re-exposure to a foreign protein or a second dosage of a drug that may be fatal unless emergency treatment is given right away.

Anemia: A condition where the blood is no longer carrying enough oxygen, so the person looks pale and easily gets dizzy, weak and tired. More severely, a person can end up with an abnormal heart, as well as breathing and digestive difficulties.

Antibiotic: A drug that kills bacteria and other germs.

Anxiety Attack: Sudden and intense feelings of fear, terror, and dread physically creating shortness of breath, sweating, trembling and heart palpitations.

Apathy: A complete lack of concern or interest for things that ordinarily would be regarded as important or would normally cause concern.

Appetite Decreased: A lack of appetite despite the ordinary caloric demands of living with a resulting unintentional loss of weight.

Appetite Increased: An unusual hunger causing one to overeat.

Aropax (Paroxetine): An SSRI drug.

Arrhythmia: Any change from the normal heartbeat.

Asthma: A disease of the breathing system initiated by an allergic reaction or a chemical with repeated attacks ofcoughing, sticky mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. The disease can reach a state where it stops a person from exhaling, leading to unconsciousness and death.

Asymptomatic: Not having symptoms.

Atypical. Unusual or irregular.


Bloating: An abnormal swelling of the belly most often caused by excessive intestinal gas.

Breath Shortness: Unnatural breathing using a lot of effort resulting in not enough air taken in by the body.

Breast Neoplasm: A tumor or cancer on the breasts of a woman.

Bronchitis: Inflammation of the two main breathing tubes leading from the windpipe to the lungs. The disease is marked with coughing, a low-grade fever, chest pain, and hoarseness, caused by an allergic reaction.

Bruise: Damage to the skin resulting in a purple-green-yellow skin coloration that’s caused by breaking the blood vessels in the area without breaking the surface of the skin.


Cancer: A class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues and, if not stopped, bring about death of the body.

Carbohydrate Craving: A craving to eat foods rich in sugar and starches (sweets, snacks and junk foods) that intensifies as the diet becomes more and more unbalanced due to the unbalancing of the proper nutritional requirements of the body.

Cardiovascular: Involving the heart and the blood vessels.

Carpal Tunnel SyndromeA pinched nerve in the wrist that causes pain, tingling, and numbness.

Central Nervous SystemBrain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System Depressants: (CNS Depressants) A variety of drugs that slow down first the operation of the brain and then begin to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and lead to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria to depression. Examples of these depressants are:alcoholamitriptyline hydrochlorideamobarbitalamosecobarbitalchlordiazepoxidealprazolamchloral hydratechlorpromazinedesipraminediazepamdiphenhylhydantoin sodiumdiphenhydraminedoxepin hydrochloridedroperidol; flurazepamhydrochloride; glutethimide; lithium carbonatelithium citratemethaqualonemethyprylonphenelzine sulfatephenobarbitalphetobarbital; and secobarbital.

Central Nervous System Stimulants: This is a variety of drugs that stimulate the nervous systemand initially create a sense of euphoria and self-confidence. However, maintaining this euphoria requires more and more of the drugs which can lead to feelings of panic, confusion, severe heart and respiratory problems and death. Examples of these drugs are: cocaineamphetamine;methamphetamine; and methylphenidate.

Chronic: A condition where something is continuing for a long time.

Cirrhosis of the Liver: An often fatal disease in the liver which is often caused by alcoholism.

Concentration Impaired: Unable to easily focus your attention for long periods of time.

Confusion: Not able to think clearly and understand in order to make a logical decision.

Conjunctivitis: Infection of the membrane that covers the eyeball and lines the eyelid, caused by avirus, allergic reaction, or an irritating chemical. It is characterized by redness, a discharge of fluid and itching.

Constipation: Difficulty in having a bowel movement where the material in the bowels is hard due to a lack of exercise, fluid intake, and roughage in the diet, or due to certain drugs.

Control Group: In many studies and clinical trials, one group of patients will be given a drug while another group is given a placebo. The group taking the placebo is called the control group.

Coordination Abnormal: A lack of normal, harmonious interaction of the parts of the body when it is in motion.

Coughing: A cough is the response to an irritation, such as mucus, that causes the muscles controlling the breathing process to expel air from the lungs suddenly and noisily to keep the air passages free from the irritating material.

Crying Abnormal: Unusual and not normal fits of weeping for short or long periods of time for no apparent reason.


Decreased Weight: Uncontrolled and measured loss of heaviness or weight.

Detox: Short for Detoxification, refers to the removing of the residual toxins left in the human body as a result of taking drugs. Drug Detox, from a medical prospective, is the process of medically managing the body’s physicalwithdrawal from drugs.

Detoxification or Detox Center: medical facility that provides detoxification under medical supervision.

Detoxification: See Detox.

Detoxification Program: (Often shortened to Detox Program) This is the series of steps taken by the medical facility to safely allow someone to detox from drugs.

Diarrhea: Unusually frequent and excessive runny bowel movements that may result in severe dehydration and shock.

Diphenhydramine: A drug that slows down first the operation of the brain and then begins to affect heartbeat, respiration, and balance, and leads to slower reflexes, impaired judgment and emotions ranging from euphoria todepression.

Disorientation: A loss of sense of direction, place, time or surroundings as well as mental confusionof personal identity.

Dizziness: A condition of losing one’s balance while feeling unsteady and lightheaded which may lead to fainting.

Dreaming Abnormal: A condition of dreaming that leaves a very clear, detailed picture and impression when awake that can last for a long period of time and sometimes be unpleasant.

Drug Interactions: Many drugs slow down the enzymes that metabolize other drugs. It is known that some SSRIdrugs inhibit the YP2D6 enzyme to the point that as many as 80 percent of the extensive metabolizers becomepoor metabolizers. This leads to more serious side effects.

Dry Eyes: A condition where there is not enough moisture in the eyes.

Dry Lips: A condition where there is a lack of normal moisture in the fleshy folds that surround the mouth.

Dry Mouth: A condition where the usual amount of moisture in the mouth is noticeably less.

Dry Skin: A condition where there is a lack of normal moisture/oils in the surface layer of the body. The skin is the body’s largest organ.


Electrolyte Imbalance: Imbalance of salts or chemicals in the blood.

Elevation of Liver Function Tests: Evidence of liver or kidney damage.

Excitability: A condition of uncontrollably responding to stimuli.


Faintness: A temporary condition where one is likely to go unconscious and fall.

Fatigue: Loss of normal strength that prevents doing the usual physical and mental activities.

FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the branch of the federal government which is responsible for the approval of new drugs.

Flatulence : A condition of more gas than normal in the digestive organs.

Flushing: A condition where the skin all over the body turns red.

Forgetfulness: A condition of being unable to remember what one ordinarily would remember.


Gastro Esophageal Reflux: A continuous state where stomach juices flow back into the throat causing acid indigestion and heartburn and possibly injury to the throat.

Gastrointestinal: Involving the stomach and the intestines.

Gene: An individual piece of DNA. Most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

Genetics: The branch of biology that studies genes and their effect.

Genome: An organism’s chromosomes which contains all of its genes and associated DNA..

Glucose: A sugar that is the main energy source for the body.

Gout: A severe arthritic condition that is caused by the dumping of a waste product called uric acid into the tissues and joints. It can cause the body to develop a deformity after going through stages of pain, inflammation, severe tenderness and stiffness.p>

Grand Mal Seizures (or Convulsions): A recurring sudden, violent and involuntary attack of muscle spasms with a loss of consciousness. Literally translated as great sickness


Headache: A sharp or dull persistent pain in the head.

Heartburn: A burning pain in the area of the breastbone caused by stomach juices flowing back up into the throat.

Hypoglycemia: A lower than normal amount of sugar in the blood.


Increased Stool Frequency: See “Diarrhea”.

Increased Weight: A concentration and storage of fat in the body accumulating over a period of time caused by unhealthy eating patterns, that can predispose the body to many disorders and diseases.

Increased Sweating: A large quantity of perspiration that is medically caused.
Indigestion. Inability to properly consume and absorb food in the digestive tract causing constipation,nausea, stomachache, gas, swollen belly, pain and general discomfort or sickness.

Inflammation: Swelling which is generally painful, red, and warm.

Influenza-like Symptoms: Irritation of the respiratory tract (organs of breathing) such as a cold, sudden fever, aches and pains, as well as feeling weak and seeking bed rest, which is similar to having the flu.

Insomnia: Sleeplessness caused by physical stress, mental stress or stimulants such as coffee or medications. It is a condition of being awake when one would ordinarily be able to fall and remain asleep.

Insulin: A hormone secreted by the pancreas and required to control glucose (sugar) which is necessary for the proper functions of the cells. Insulin reduces the amount of blood sugar in the body. The opposite of the effect caused by glucagon.

Irritability: A state of being abnormally annoyed in response to a stimulus.


Jitteriness: Nervous fidgeting without an apparent cause.

Joint: The area attaching two bones so that they can move together.

Joint Stiffness: A loss of free motion and easy flexibility where any two bones come together.


Ketone: The substance produced by the body when there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the blood. If the ketone count in the blood becomes too high then serious illness or a coma can result.

KidneyOrgans located on the right and left side of the abdomen. Their purpose is to clear toxins from the blood, to regulate acid concentration and excrete urine.


Lethargy: Mental and physical sluggishness and apathy that can deteriorate into an unconscious state resembling deep sleep. A numbed state of mind.

Lexapro (Escitalopram Oxalate): An SSRI drug prescribed for depression.

Light-Headed Feeling: An uncontrolled and usually brief loss of consciousness caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain.

Lymphatic: The system of vessels involved with drainage of bodily fluids.


Malaise: The somewhat unclear feeling of discomfort you get when you start to feel sick.

Menses (Menstrual Period): The monthly release of blood from the uterus of non-pregnant women that begins at puberty and continues until menopause.

Menstrual Cramps: Painful, involuntary uterus contractions that women experience around the time of their menstrual period, sometimes causing pain in the lower back, abdomen and thighs.

Menstrual Disorder: A disturbance or derangement in the normal function of a woman’s menstrual period.

Metabolize: The process of enzymes breaking down substances in the cells.

Metallic Taste: A range of taste impairment from distorted taste to a complete loss of taste.

Migraine: Recurring severe head pain usually combined with nausea, vomitingdizziness, flashes or spots before the eyes, and ringing in the ears.

Muscle Cramp: A condition where the muscles contract uncontrollably without warning and do not relax. The muscles of any body organs can cramp.

Muscle Weakness: A loss of physical strength.


Nasal Congestion: A condition where there is the presence of an abnormal amount of fluid in the nose.

Nausea: A stomach irritation with a queasy sensation similar to motion sickness and a feeling that one is going to vomit.

Norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter thought to affect stress.

Nutrition: The study of the effects of food on health.


Obesity: The National Institute of Health has determined that a person is obese if they are more than 30 pounds overweight for their body type.


Palpitation: An unusual and not normal heartbeat, that is sometimes irregular, but a rapid and forceful thumping or fluttering. It can be brought on by shock, excitement, exertion, or medical stimulants. A person is normally unaware of his/her heartbeat.

Pancreas: A gland secreting pancreatic juice (needed to digest fat and carbohydrates) and insulinandglucagon.



Rapid Detox: A name given to procedures where the patient is anesthetized by being placed under the same type of general anesthesia used for surgery. An opiate antagonist is then introduced into the body and this is supposed to “flush” out the opiates like oxycontin. Many patients have reported significant side effects from the procedure.

Rash: A skin eruption or discoloration that may or may not be itching, tingling, burning, or painful. It may be caused by an allergy, a skin irritation or a skin disease.

Remission : A disappearance of evidence of cancer or other disease.

Respiratory SystemOrgans involved in breathing.

Restless Legs: A need to move the legs without any apparent reason. Sometimes there is pain,twitching, jerking, cramping, burning, or a creepy-crawly sensation associated with the movements. It worsens when a person is inactive and can interrupt one’s sleep so one feels the need to move to gain some relief.

Restlessness Aggravated: A constantly worsening troubled state of mind characterized by the person being increasingly nervous, unable to relax and easily angered.


Sleep Apnea: A breathing disorder where someone’s breathing is frequently interrupted while sleeping.

Sluggishness: Lack of alertness and energy, as well as being slow to respond or perform in life.

Symptomatic: Having symptoms.

Synthetic: Not naturally occurring; man made.


Tachycardia: A condition where the heart rate is sped up to above 100 beats per minute in an adult. Normal adult heart rate is 72 beats per minute.

Taste Alteration: An abnormal flavor detection in food.

Topical: On the surface; on the skin.

Toxicity: Poisonous. Side effects or undesirable effects of a drug.

Trauma: An injury; wound.

Tremor: A nervous and involuntary vibrating or quivering of the body.



Viral: Relating to a virus.

Virus: A microorganism causing illnesses from the common cold to AIDS.

Vomiting: Involuntarily throwing up the contents of the stomach and usually getting a nauseated, sick feeling just prior to doing so.


Wheezing: A condition when the airways compress and produce a whistling sound.

White Blood Cell: A cell produced by the body to resist disease.

Withdrawal: The stopping of taking of a drug on which the person has become either physically and/or mentally dependent. Withdrawal from many medications can be harmful or even fatal. Many prescription labels have a warning not to discontinue taking a drug without first obtaining a doctor’s approval.

Withdrawal Symptoms: If the withdrawal is not planned and is the sudden cessation of taking adrug, the symptoms can include sweating, tremorsvomitinginsomnia and muscle and joint pain.